Camille Arambourg (1885–1969) was a French vertebrate paleontologist. He conducted extensive field work in North Africa. In the 1950s he argued against the prevailing model of Neanderthals as brutish and simian.
During World War I he was in Military service. After that he was a professor of Geology at the Institut Agricole d'Alger, and after that a professor of Paleontology at Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, where he succeeded his teacher Marcellin Boule.