News on cichlids
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (26-Jul-2023)
Two new species of Crenicichla closely related to C. mandelburgeri and living sympatrically in the upper arroyo Piray Guazú, Paraná drainage in the Misiones province in Argentina have been described by Oldřich Říčan, Lubomír Piálek, Adriana Almirón, & Jorge Casciotta in the European Journal of Taxonomy ((879):38-63 2023). The two species, which belong to the subgenus Lacustria, are mainly diagnosed from each other and other closely related species on the basis of color pattern. The species are named Crenicichla ama, which means rain in Guaraní, in reference to the color pattern with small spots below blotches which appear as if rain (spots) is falling from clouds (blotches). Crenicichla aravera, the second species, is named with the Guaraní word for flash (as in storm), in reference to the long body, pointed head, and a dominant coloration marking of a black mid-lateral band and rapid hunting strategy. Both species, in the range of 16-18 cm in total length, are endemic to the upper arroyo Piray Guazú, with C. aravera being a specialized piscivorous. Both species were found to be sister species with at least one of them having an hybrid origin.
Říčan, Oldřich & Lubomír Piálek, Adriana Almirón, & Jorge Casciotta. 2023. "Description of two new species forming a sympatric species pair of Crenicichla (Teleostei: Cichlidae) endemic to the Piray Guazú River in the Paraná River Basin, Misiones, Argentina and belonging to the C. mandelburgeri species complex". European Journal of Taxonomy. (879):38-63. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2023.879.2159 (crc12321) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (22-Jul-2023)
A new research paper by Henrique R. Varella, Sven O. Kullander, Naércio A. Menezes, Claudio Oliveira & Hernán López-Fernández has been published in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (2023(20):1-43 21-Jun-2023). In the paper, the researchers create a phylogeny for the genus of American cichlids with the most species, the pike cichlids of the genus Crenicichla (93 species), and those of the genus Teleocichla (9 species). The research is based on comparing 216 morphological characters and molecular data from published sources (when available). The result is a phylogenetic tree where they examine the different evolutionary groups of this genus, and propose four new genera that split Crenicichla and officialize some of the groups previously proposed by Alex Ploeg in 1991. The new genera are Wallaciia, which includes all small Crenicichla species previously in the C. wallacii species group; Hemeraia for C. hemera and C. chicha; Saxatilia for species previously in the C. saxatilis species group, and Lugubria for species previously in the C. lugubris species group. Additionally, they formalize three more species groups into subgenera for the species that derive from C. macrophthalma, the type species of the genus: the subgenera are Crenicichla (Crenicichla) for C. macrophthalma, the subgenus Crenicichla (Batrachops), and the subgenus Crenicichla (Lacustria) that includes all of the southern species found in the Paraná River drainage.
Varella, Henrique Rosa & Sven O. Kullander, Naércio A. Menezes, Claudio Oliveira, Hernán López-Fernández. 2023. "Revision of the generic classification of pike cichlids using an integrative phylogenetic approach (Cichlidae: tribe Geophagini: subtribe Crenicichlina)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 2023(20):1-43. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlad021 (crc12305) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (15-Jun-2023)
A new South American cichlid from the Amazon basin in Peru has been described by Oldřich Říčan & Štepánka Říčanová in the European Journal of Taxonomy (870(1):167–201). The new species, Bujurquina omagua, is diagnosed by having at least four unique characters for cichlids in the genus: a suborbital stripe in adults, which is bent and with a blotch at the lower end; orange cheeks and lower head coloration with alternating opalescent lines and series of spots on the snout; spinous portion of the dorsal fin with a single thin diagonal black line (or two in large adults) per membrane; having the longest snout of all species. The name was given after the Omagua people, which were at the time of the first contact with Europeans in the 16th century the dominant people along the banks of the Amazon River upstream from the mouth of the Negro River. The species is only known from two small creeks in the Amazon drainage in the Loreto department in Peru.
The paper includes a key for all species of Bujurquina, which are separated into northern and southern groups.
Říčan, Oldřich & Štepánka Říčanová. 2023. "A new highly apomorphic species of Bujurquina (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from a reverse flowing river in the Peruvian Amazon, with a key to the species in the genus". European Journal of Taxonomy. 870(1):167–201. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2023.870.2127 (crc12299) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (14-Jun-2023)
A new species of rock-dwelling mbuna cichlid from the northwestern Malawian coast of Lake Malawi was recently described by Jay Stauffer and Ad Konings in the journal Zootaxa (5296 (2): 265–274, DOI: 10.11646/ZOOTAXA.5296.2.7). The new species Metriaclima melissa is described as different based on a combination of characters of the color pattern, which includes having black dorsal and ventral margins in the tail. M. melissa is also defined as having 5-7 bars. Three previously considered potential new species are recognized as geographic varieties of M. melissa: Metriaclima sp. 'elongatus chailosi', M. sp. 'elongatus chewere', and M. sp. 'elongatus bee'. The specific name melissa derives from Greek and means bee, alluding to the bee-like coloration of adult males at the type locality, Chitande Island. The new species is known to Chitande Island, submerged reefs near Mbuyu, Chewere, Chilumba Bay, Katale Island, and Chirwa Island. In the paper, the authors summarize and support their arguments of validity of Metriaclima over Maylandia and justify the placement of the new species in Metriaclima.
Stauffer, Jay Richard Jr. & Adrianus F. Konings. 2023. "Description of a geographically variable elongate rock-dwelling cichlid (Cichliformes: Cichlidae) from Lake Malaŵi, Africa". Zootaxa. 5296(2):265–274. DOI: 10.11646/ZOOTAXA.5296.2.7 (crc12232) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (13-Jun-2023)
Six new species of rocky reefs cichlids in the genus Labeotropheus from the Malawian coast of Lake Malawi have been described by Michael J. Pauers & Titus B. Phiri in the journal Ichthyology & Herpetology (111(2):264-292, 2023). The new species were known as geographical varieties of the two base species in the genus: the robust-bodied L. fuelleborni Ahl, 1927 and the slender-bodied L. trewavasae Fryer, 1956. They are all separated by color pattern but in one case, where combinations of morphological proportions that partially overlap are used. The new species are:
Labeotropheus alticodia, formerly L. fuelleborni from Maleri/Nankoma islands, which specific name —high head from Latin— refers to the high head of the species. It is diagnosed by a combination of morphological proportions.
Labeotropheus aurantinfra, formerly L. trewavasae from Chirwa Island, which specific name —orange undersides from Latin— refers to the male’s male nuptial color pattern, which is diagnostic for the species.
Labeotropheus candipygia, formerly L. fuellerborni from Chitande Island, which specific name —white rump from Latin— refers to the bright white or bluish-white ventral area of the males, which is diagnostic for the species.
Labeotropheus chirangali, formerly L. trewavasae from Mphanga Rocks, which specific name —beacon from Chichewa — refers to the navigational beacon present on Mphanga Rocks, the type locality of the species. It is diagnosed based on the nuptial coloration of males.
Labeotropheus obscurus, formerly L. fuelleborni from Namalenje Island, which specific name —dark from Latin— refers to what the authors describe as a mostly gray male nuptial color pattern, which is diagnostic for the species.
Labeotropheus rubidorsalis, formerly L. trewavasae from Maleri/Nankoma islands, which specific name —with a red top from Latin— to the brilliant red dorsal fin of the males, which is diagnostic for the species.
Pauers, Michael J & Titus B. Phiri. 2023. "Six New Species of Labeotropheus (Cichliformes: Cichlidae) from the Malaŵian Shore of Lake Malaŵi, Africa". Ichthyology & Herpetology. 112(2):264-292. DOI: doi.org/10.1643/i2021055 (crc12231) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (06-Jun-2023)
Two new open-water cichlids endemic to Lake Edward have been described in the journal Hydrobiologia (doi 10.1007/s10750-023-05246-y) by Nathan Vranken, M. van Steenberge, M. Mbalassa, and Jos Snoeks. Haplochromis pelagicus, was split from H. pappenheimi (Boulenger, 1914) — which is very similar, with some specimens in the type series of the latter becoming types of the former — being separated by a combination of characters mainly related to the shape of the teeth and some subtle aspects of coloration; both species feed on crustaceans and insects found in the open water of the lake. The specific name pelagicus reflects the habitat of the species.
The second species described, Haplochromis aureus, an open water insectivorous, is also similar to both H. pelagicus and H. pappenheimi, and differs in having a slightly higher body, longer upper jaw, and fewer gill rakers, all aspects partially overlapping in the three species. The specific name aureus (golden from Latin) refers to the yellow chest, cheeks, and snout seen in dominant males and the yellow pelvic fins seen in females.
Vranken, Nathan & M. van Steenberge, M. Mbalassa, J. Snoeks. 2023. "Just below the surface, the pelagic haplochromine cichlids from the Lake Edward system". Hydrobiologia. epub. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-023-05246-y (crc12229) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (16-Dec-2022)
The Geophagus sp. 'red head tapajos' has been given the name Geophagus pyrocephalus by Junior Chuctaya, Pedro Nitschke, Marcelo C. Andrade, Juliana Wingert, and Luiz R. Malabarba in a publication in the Journal of Fish Biology (10.1111/jfb.15207). The description is based on morphology and mDNA comparison and the new species is distinguished from all congeners by the absence of markings on the head, the bar pattern composed of nine vertical bars on flanks, and the presence of distinct longitudinal bands in the caudal fin. The name pyrocephalus (redheaded from Greek) reflects the common aquarium name and the distribution of the species.
Chuctaya, Junior & Pedro Nitschke, Marcelo C. Andrade, Juliana Wingert, Luiz R. Malabarba. 2022. "A new species of Geophagus (Teleostei: Cichlidae): naming a cichlid species widely known in the aquarium hobby as “Geophagus sp. Tapajos Red head”". Journal of Fish Biology. DOI: 10.1111/jfb.15207 (crc12031) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (08-Nov-2022)
A revision of Hemichromis by Anton Lamboj and Stephan Koblmüller has been published in the journal Hydrobiologia (DOI 10.1007/s10750-022-05060-y). In this revision, a phylogeny of all (but one: H. exsul) species of Hemichromis has been produced using two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, as well as morphometry, meristics, and a qualitative assessment of body coloration. The result divides the genus as known hitherto into two distinct groups — now genera — the five spotted Hemichromis (four species), which retain the name of the genus, and the smaller jewel cichlids (nine species plus four undescribed), for which the new genus Rubricatochromis has been described. The name given to the new genus reflects the well-known bright red coloration (rubricatus = Latin for painted in red) present in varying degrees on most of the species while dominant or breeding. The result shows that these two groups diverged somewhere between 5.9 to 11.8 mya. Additionally, a neotype has been selected for the enigmatic Hemichromis angolensis, which holotype was lost.
Lamboj, Anton & Stephan Koblmüller. 2022. "Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the cichlid genus Hemichromis (Teleostei, Cichliformes, Cichlidae), with description of a new genus and revalidation of H. angolensis". Hydrobiologia. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-022-05060-y (crc12104) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (18-Oct-2022)
A new species of Parananochromis, P. moutingae from the middle part of the Congo River system in Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo has been described by Armel Ibala Zamba, Tobit L.D. Liyandja, Anton Lamboj, Jos Snoeks, and Emmanuel Vreven in the journal Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwaters, (IEF-1074):1-14 17-Oct-2022. The small (maximum six cm) new species is distinguished by meristic and morphologic characteristics from other Parananochromis species, inhabiting mostly to the north in the Gulf of Guinea river tributaries. The new species inhabits fast-flowing areas of black water in both large and small rivers, feeding on insects. The specific name moutingae was given in honor of Anette Ngoma Moutinga (1978-2012), a former member of the Congo ichthyological research team, which participated in the discovery of the fish in 2008.
Ibala Zamba, Armel & Tobit L.D. Liyandja, Anton Lamboj, Jos Snoeks, Emmanuel Vreven. 2022. "Parananochromis moutingae (Teleostei: Cichlidae): a new species from Central Africa, and the first record of the genus in the Congo River basin". Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwaters. (IEF-1074):1-14. DOI: 10.23788/IEF-1074 (crc12094) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (09-Sep-2022)
A new species of Mikrogeophagus from Brazil has been described as Mikrogeophagus maculicauda by Wolfgang Staeck, Felipe Ottoni, and Ingo Schindler in the journal Fishtaxa 2022(24):49-58, published today. The new species is known from the Rio Pindaituba, a right-hand affluent of the Rio Guaporé in the Amazon drainage, from there the closely related Mikrogeophagus altispinosus is known. M. maculicauda mainly differs from the latter species by having a conspicuous large rectangular or square black blotch extending almost over the entire caudal region of the body. The authors made the case that although very similar, the recognition of M. maculicauda as a new species is granted based on the differences in the black color pattern — in this case, the diagnostic black blotch in the caudal peduncle — since this is one of the most frequently applied separating characters in species descriptions of South American cichlids, as even minor deviations in the patterns of dark markings may be of biological significance as they are important in mate choice, effectively separating species.
Staeck, Wolfgang & Felipe Polivanov Ottoni, Ingo Schindler. 2022. "Mikrogeophagus maculicauda, a new dwarf cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the eastern drainage of the upper Rio Guaporé, Brazil". Fishtaxa. (24):49-58 (crc12052) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (25-Aug-2022)
A new species of oscar, Astronotus mikoljii, has been recently described from populations in the Orinoco river drainage in Colombia and Venezuela, previously identified as Astronotus ocellatus. The new description is authored by Alfredo Perez Lozano, Oscar M. Lasso-Alcalá, Pedro Senna Bittencourt, Donald Charles Taphorn, Nayibe Perez & Izeni Pires Farias and published in the journal Zookeys — (1113):111-152. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1113.81240. The description is an example of a new trend of species delimited by mathematical algorithms applied to DNA sequences. In applying this type of methodology to 24 specimens of Astronotus (five from Venezuela, seven A. crassipinnis, and 12 A. ocellatus) plus other DNA sequences previously obtained, the authors have determined that there are five species out of the previously recognized two. To establish a diagnosis for this species that would tell it apart from the others, the authors have recurred to a combination of skeletal differences, mainly in the otolith (earstones) that allows fish to hear and keep balance — earstones are commonly used by ichthyologists to identify species. Morphologically, the new species is just marginally different from A. ocellatus and A. crassipinnis, mainly in average values (with one digit percentage differences) of the snout, head depth, and eye sizes, which means that a regular observer (even one familiar with cichlids) would not likely be able to tell it apart from the common oscar by following the diagnosis and looking at it.
Perez Lozano, Alfredo & Oscar M. Lasso-Alcalá, Pedro Senna Bittencourt, Donald Charles Taphorn, Nayibe Perez, Izeni Pires Farias, Alfredo Perez. 2022. "A new species of Astronotus (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from the Orinoco River and Gulf of Paria basins, northern South America". Zookeys. (1113):111-152. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1113.81240 (crc11986) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (11-Aug-2022)
A new species of Geophagus has been described by Gabriel de Carvalho Deprá, Willian Massaharu Ohara & Hugmar Pains Silva in the journal Zootaxa (5162 (1): 037–053). The new species, Geophagus pyrineusi, is endemic to the lower rio Teles Pires and its tributary, the rio Cristalino, rio Tapajós basin in the Brazilian Amazon drainage. This species differentiates from all Geophagus by its body marks, among other things by having the two frontal flank bars almost as dark as the mid-lateral spot, and as dark as the conspicuous, complete bar that crosses the eye. The name given is to honor Antônio Pyrineus de Sousa, who first collected the species and was a pioneer of Brazilian ichthyology.
Deprá, Gabriel de Carvalho & Willian Massaharu Ohara, Hugmar Pains Silva. 2022. "Geophagus pyrineusi: a new species from the rio Teles Pires, rio Tapajós basin, Brazil (Cichliformes: Cichlidae: Geophagini)". Zootaxa. 5162 (1): 037–053. DOI: 10.11646/ZOOTAXA.5162.1.2 (crc11972) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (26-May-2022)
A revision of the African genus Ctenochromis by Martin J. Genner and seven other researchers, based on nuclear DNA and morphological comparisons, has been published in the European Journal of Taxonomy (819: 23–54). In this revision, the genus is diagnosed and limited to two species from Tanzania: Ctenochromis pectoralis from the Pangani drainage, and the new Ctenochromis scatebra, known from the Chemka Springs. The two species are distinguished by C. scatebra mature adult males having at least one clear non-ocellated egg spot on the anal fin (versus none). The name given to the new species stems from Latin, meaning spring.
The rest of the species previously in Ctenochromis are classified in the following way: a new monotypic genus Shuja (meaning warrior in Swahili) is described for the Lake Tanganyika species previously known as C. horei (now Shuja horei). The species C. oligacanthus, C. polli, and C. benthicola are provisionally reclassified in the genus Haplochromis.
Genner, Martin & L.-L. Hsu, R.A. Collins, A.M. Smith, A.D. Saxon, A.H. Shechonge, B.P. Ngatunga, G.F. Turner. 2022. "Revision of the African cichlid fish genus Ctenochromis (Teleostei, Cichliformes), including a description of the new genus Shuja from Lake Tanganyika and the new species Ctenochromis scatebra from northern Tanzania". European Journal of Taxonomy. 819:23–54. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2022.819.1775 (crc11886) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (03-Apr-2022)
A new species of Congochromis, C. rotundiceps, only known from the Malebo Pool in the main course of the Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo has been described in the journal Zootaxa by Nadine Usimesa Wingi, F.D.B. Schedel, and U.K. Schliewen [5124(3):296-320 03-Apr-2022]. The new species is based on specimens stored in the collection of the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, which were collected by J.G. Lambert in 1967. The new species is diagnosed by a convoluted combination of morphologic characters against all currently accepted species of Congochromis. The name given rotundiceps derives from Latin, meaning round-headed (an adjective), and refers to the widely rounded head of the new species.
Wingi, Nadine Usimesa & F.D.B Schedel, U.K. Schliewen. 2022. "Congochromis rotundiceps sp. nov., a new cichlid species (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae) from the Congo Drainage". Zootaxa. 5124(3):296-320. DOI: 10.11646/ZOOTAXA.5124.3.2 (crc11869) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (23-Mar-2022)
A new species of Steatocranus: S. masalamasoso has been described in the journal Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwaters (IEF-1130:1-11. DOI: 10.23788/IEF-1130) by Armel Ibala Zamba, Juliane D. Weiss, Victor Mamonekene, Ulrich K. Schliewen, and Emmanuel Vreven. The new species is only known from the type locality at the right bank of the Masala Ma Soso Rapids on the Lower Léfini River, which is a right bank tributary of the Middle Congo in the Republic of the Congo, at about 10 km to their confluence. The species differentiates from all other Steatocranus species by having more circum-peduncular scales (18-20 versus 12-16).
Ibala Zamba, Armel & Juliane D. Weiss, Victor Mamonekene, Ulrich K. Schliewen, Emmanuel Vreven. 2022. "Steatocranus masalamasoso, a new species of lionhead cichlid from the Léfini River basin, Congo basin, Africa (Teleostei: Cichlidae)". Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwaters. IEF-1130:1-11. DOI: 10.23788/IEF-1130 (crc11870) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (22-Oct-2021)
Two new species of small shell-dwelling mbuna cichlids from Lake Malawi have been described in the journal Zootaxa (5052(3):419–432 — 15-Oct-2021) by Torin A. Miller, Ad Konings and Jay Stauffer. The two new species were placed in the genus Metriaclima —the most speciose mbuna genus— because of the angle of their snouts (around 45°) and having bicuspid teeth in the central portion of the outer row of both upper and lower jaws. The species were given the names Metriaclima ngarae and M. gallireyae, the specific names reflecting on their type localities in rocky reefs in the northwestern coastal area of the Lake in Malawi. Both species were previously known with the provisional name Metriaclima sp. 'lanisticola north', and have separated very limited distributions in a couple of reefs each. Both species have a black sub marginal band in the dorsal and anal fins, and 4–5 bars below the dorsal fin that distinguishes them from most other species in Metriaclima. The two new species differ from each other in coloration and head proportions. Both species live in sandy areas and protect themselves in abandoned snail shells.
Miller, Torin A & Adrianus F. Konings, Jay R. Stauffer. 2021. "Descriptions of two new shell-dwelling species of Metriaclima (Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa". Zootaxa. 5052(3):419–432. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5052.3.7 (crc11726) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (20-May-2021)
The cichlid world has lost one of its most prominent figures, and many people has lost a dear friend.
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (04-Mar-2021)
Bagley et al. (2016) prove that Amatitlania siquia is a junior synonym of A. nigrofasciata, but have not declared it so. Artigas Azas (2021:18) has recognized the synonymy and we are adopting it in our catalog.
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (04-Feb-2021)
A work on the five-spotted group of Hemichromis from West Africa has recently been published in the journal Hydrobiologia, the paper is authored by Arnold Roger Bitja-Nyom, Jean-François Agnèse, Antoine Pariselle, Charles Félix Bilong-Bilong, André Gilles, and Jos Snoeks. The study includes the result of a mitochondrial DNA comparison for three Hemichromis species (fasciatus, frempongi and elongatus) from 100 populations from Senegal east and south to Gabon (no samplings were made in Angola). The resulting phylogenetic tree is formed by two clusters. The first (western and northernmost) cluster produced four clades (subgroups): one of them include what we know as H. fasciatus and H. frempongi, and hence the authors propose the synonymy of the latter with the former. The other three clades are formed by different populations of the southern H. elongatus. The second cluster, formed by three different clades from populations from Cameroon, has been described as a new species, Hemichromis camerounensis, with populations in Cameroon and Nigeria. The diagnosis is given as “two distinct red opercular spots on either side of the single large black opercular spot”. Unfortunately, this diagnosis appears not be applicable since many individuals in the populations of H. elongatus south to Angola show the same feature.
Bitja-Nyom, Arnold Roger & Jean-François Agnèse, Antoine Pariselle, Charles Félix Bilong-Bilong, André Gilles, Jos Snoeks. 2021. "A systematic revision of the five-spotted Hemichromis complex (Cichliformes: Cichlidae) from West Africa and Lower Guinea, with the description of a new species from Cameroon". Hydrobiologia. 848: 3779–3803. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-020-04506-5 (crc11122) (abstract)
By Juan Miguel Artigas Azas (23-Jan-2021)
Four new species of riverine cichlids in the genus Serranochromis from the Cuanza and Okavango river systems in Angola (to where they are probably endemic) have been described by Jay Stauffer, Paul Skelton and Rober Bills in the journal Zootaxa. The four species, namely Serranochromis alvum (meaning blotches from Latin, in reference to the prominent lateral pigmentation), S. cacuchi (referring the type locality at Cacuchi River), S. cuanza (referring the type locality at Cuanza River) and S. swartzi (after the primary collector Dr. Ernst Swartz - ichthyologist at the South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity) differ from each other and other Serranochromis species in a combination of morphological, meristic and color pattern features which include distance between eyes, angle of snout or mouth cleft, presence or not of ocelli in the anal fin, and others. No phylogenetic support based on DNA comparison is offered by the authors.
Stauffer, Jay Richard Jr. & Roger Bills, Paul H. Skelton. 2021. "Four new species of Serranochromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the Cuanza and Okavango river systems in Angola, including a preliminary key for the genus". Zootaxa. 4908(1):66–84. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4908.1.4 (crc11108) (abstract)