" Local adaptation to the littoral and pelagic zones in two cichlid haplochromine fish species from Lake Kivu was investigated using morphometrics. Cranial variation and inferred jaw mechanics in both sexes of the two species across the two habitat types were quantified and compared. Comparisons of littoral versus pelagic populations revealed habitat‐specific differences in the shape of the feeding apparatus. Also, kinematic transmission of the anterior jaw four‐bar linkage that promotes greater jaw protrusion was higher in the pelagic zone than in the littoral zone for both species. Inferred bite force was likewise higher in pelagic zone fish. There were also sex‐specific differences in craniofacial morphology as males exhibited longer heads than females in both habitats. As has been described for other cichlids in the East African Great Lakes, local adaptation to trophic resources in the littoral and pelagic habitats characterizes these two Lake Kivu cichlids. Similar studies involving other types of the Lake Kivu fishes are recommended to test the evidence of the observed trophic patterns and their genetic basis of divergences "
Classification: Physiology and diseases, Africa.
Reference in bibliography for species (2)
Munyandamutsa, Philippe S & W.L. Jere, D. Kassam,A. Mtethiwa. 2021. "Trophic divergence of Lake Kivu cichlid fishes along a pelagic versus littoral habitat axis". Ecology and Evolution. v. 11(n. 4), pp. 1570-1585. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.7117 (crc11158) (abstract)