" Human society is cooperative and characterized by spontaneous prosociality. Comparative studies on endotherm vertebrates suggest that social interdependence causes the evolution of proactive prosociality. To test the generality of this hypothesis, we modify a prosocial choice task for application to the convict cichlid, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, a monogamous fish with biparental care and a strong pair bond. We also affirm that male subjects learn to favor prosocial choices when their mates are the recipients in a neighboring tank. When the neighboring tank is empty, males choose randomly. Furthermore, in the absence of their mates, males behave prosocially toward a stranger female. However, if the mate of the subjects is also visible in the third tank, or if a male is a potential recipient, then subjects make antisocial choices. To conclude, fish may show both spontaneous prosocial and antisocial behaviors according to their social relationships with conspecifics and the overall social context "
Classification: Behavior, Central and North America.
Reference in bibliography for species (1)
Satoh, Shun & R. Bshary, M. Shibasaki, S. Inaba, S. Sogawa, T. Hotta, S. Awata, M. Kohda. 2021. "Prosocial and antisocial choices in a monogamous cichlid with biparental care". Nature Communications. v. 12(n. 1775), pp. 1-7. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-22075-6 (crc11281) (abstract)