" The scientific study of fishes of the Great Lakes of Nicaragua began in 1864 with the description by Gunther of Heros labiatus (=Cichlasoma labiatum) from Lake Managua. Subsequently, Gunther reported on several other species collected in the Great Lakes by Captain J. M. Dow. Astorqui (1967) reviewed the sparse ichthyological literature dealing with Nicaraguan fishes and pointed out the paucity of recent studies. Since then Villa (1971) has produced a provisional list of the freshwater and brackish water fishes of Nicaragua and Astorqui (1972) has analyzed the ichthyofauna of the Great Lakes Basin. Riedel (1972) discussed the geological history of the Great Lakes in relation to the composition and evolution of its fish fauna.
The present paper analyzes the existing distribution and ecology of the lower Central American ichthyofauna, in light of paleogeologic knowledge, in order to determine the derivation of historical faunal elements, the barriers responsible for subdivision of these ancestral ichthyofaunas, and the subsequent dispersal which has resulted in secondary distributions of the descendent species in the San Juan Fish Province. For the purposes of this analysis, only freshwater fishes (i.e., species of non-marine affinity) are utilized "
Classification: Distribution and conservation, Central and North America.
Bussing, William. 1976. "Geographic Distribution of the San Juan Ichthyofauna of Central America with Remarks on its Origin and Ecology". INVESTIGATIONS OF THE ICHTHYOFAUNA OF NICARAGUAN LAKES, ed. Thomas B. Thorson, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. pp. 157-175 (crc04837) (abstract)