" Teleocichla species are small (to 76 mm standard length) Crenicichla-like cichlids with specializations for bottom life in rapids. Six species are described from rivers draining the central Brazilian highlands. Three species are sympatric in the Von Martius rapids, Rio Xingu: T. centrarchus which has four anal spines (three in Crenicichla and other Teleocichla), and lateral lines separated by two horizontal scale rows, T. gephyrogramma which has the upper and lower lateral lines nearly continuous, and T. monogramma which has a continuous lateral line. Two species are sympatric near Itaituba, Rio Tapajós: T. prionogenys which has three scale rows separating lateral lines, and T. proselytus with lateral lines separated by two scale rows. Teleocichla cinderella from the Rio Tocantins at Tucurui has one scale row running between the lateral lines. Hypothesized synapomorphies of Crenicichla and Teleocichla include: absence of supraneurals, interarcual cartilage, parhypurapophysis and anterior vertebral hypapophyses; three nasal lateralis canal openings; short and anteriorly diverging pelvic basi-pterygia; medial cleithral processes for attachment of basipterygia; cartilaginous epibranchial 1; palatovomerine ligament shifted to connect vomer and ectopterygoid. Apomorphic characters of Teleocichla include: absence of neurocranial apophysis for articulation with pharyngobranchial 3, and skull crests; a triangular process on vomer; mesethmoid free from vomer; laterally positioned dorsal process of epibranchial 3; reduced urohyal spine and median ledge; well developed abdominal postexapophyses; closely approximated branchiostegal rays 1 and 2; minute and triangular pharyngobranchial 1 "